Gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscle have insertion on calcaneus.
Calcaneus is also known as heel bone. This is the tarsus bone of the foot and other animals consist it as a point of hook.
Three muscles involved in the insertion of calcaneus are Gastrocnemius muscle, plantaris muscle and soleus muscle. These muscles are present in the posterior compartment of leg and helps in running, jumping and walking.
What is the action of the biceps femoris?
The main action of biceps femoris is the knee flexion and hip extension.
Biceps femoris muscle is a thigh muscle present in the posterior part of the body. This muscle has two heads of origin.
Biceps femoris is involved in the knee flexion. The kknee flexion decreses the angle between the femur and tibia. Biceps femoris is also involved in the hip extension. The hip joints are open during hip extension.
Where is the insertion of the sartorius?
Sartorius is inserted in the tibia.
Sartorius muscle is orginated from the iliac spine of the pelvioc bone. This muscle is the longest muscle of the human body. This muscle runs down on the thigh's anterior compartment.
The sartorius muscle is inserted in the anteromedial surface of the proximal tibia in the pesanserius. The insertion can be shown on the upper medial of the tibia. Femoral nerve innervates the sartorius muscle.
Proteins are transported via axoplasmic transport at slow rates (0.5 to 2 mm per day) and fast rates (200 to 400 mm per day). The difference in transport rate directly results from: a. the difference in the time spent per day in transport by kinesin on microtubules.
b. the site where the protein is synthesized
c. the substrate molecule used by the motor protein
d. the motor protein used to transport the proteins
Protein is one of the most important biomolecules and a basic building block of the body. Axoplasmic transport of protein includes the transportation of protein to and from the neuron.
Axoplasmic transport of protein shows the difference in transportation rate because different proteins spent different time on microtubules during transport by the kinesin molecule.
Thus, the correct answer is option (a).
Describe the three layers of meninges covering the brain.
Brain is covered with three meninges namely dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater. The tough dura mater, avascular arachnoid mater and delicate pia mater together protect the brain from any injury.
The three layers of meninges covering the brain are dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater.
Dura mater: The outer most meninx of the brain is called dura mater. It is a tough and fibrous covering of the brain. Dura mater is made of dense irregular connective tissue and is continuous with epineurium.
Arachnoid mater: The middle meninx present between pia mater and dura mater is the arachnoid mater. Arachnoid mater is avascular layer and is rich in collagen and elastic fibers.
Pia mater: The deepest meninx is called pia mater. It is the delicate layer of connective tissue. Pia mater is rich in the blood vessels that deliver nutrients and oxygen to the spinal cord.
Explain how chemotherapy aggravates the effects of leukemia.
Answer: Chemotherapy kills the leukemia cells, but releases the content of the cell into the bloodstream which cannot be filtered at once by the kidney.
Explanation: Chemotherapy can be defined as the use of drugs to treat cancer. The drugs that is given in chemotherapy flows through the bloodstream to reach all over the body.
This treatment method is only used for the people suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia. Because of its potential side effect it cannot be used for the person who is already sick.
The chemo cells are killed by leukemia cell and the contents are released into the blood stream which are not filtered by the kidney at once. Excess amount of these substances in blood can adversely affect the nervous system and heart.
This is how the chemotherapy enhances the effects of leukemia.
Radioactive amino acids incorporated into the proteins were rejected into the retina of a rabbit. After measuring the radioactivity and distance after a couple of experiments, two moving peaks were observed. The first peak moved 0.5-2 mm/day indicating that those are _________________ proteins which took up the radioactive AA whereas the second peak moved 200-400 mm/day indicating that those are _________________ proteins which took up the radioactive AA. a. cytoplasmic, transmembrane
b. secreted, transmembrane
c. transmembrane, cytoplasmic
Pulse chase experiment is an important technique used to analyze the cellular process by labeling the cells with radioactive compound.
The radioactive amino acids is injected into the rabbit's retina. Two different moving peaks are observed during the experiment. The first peak moved at 0.5-2 mm/day and second peak at 200-400 mm/day. These peaks are observed due to difference in the synthesis and transport rate of the protein. Cytoplasmic protein has slow transport and sorting rate, indicates the first peak. The second peak corresponds to transmembrane protein.
Thus, the correct answer is option (a).
The output region is the site of ______________________. a. protein synthesis
b. ligand gated channels
c. voltage gated Na+ channels
d. neurotransmitter release
The correct answer is option C (voltage gated Na+ channels).
Output region or axon terminal is the structure of neuron which transmits the signals to other nerve cells.
The signal is transferred via action potential generated by the dendrite cell which moves along the axon and reaches the synaptic junction.
At the synaptic junction, voltage-gated channel (Na+) channels located in the membrane of the axon terminal cell opens due to the changes in the electric membrane potential which play important role in returning the depolarized cell to a resting state.
Thus, option C (voltage-gated Na+ channels) is the correct answer.
What do "extension" and "flexion" mean?
Extension is the movement of body that increases the angle between two body parts. The elbow extension increases the angle between ulna and humerus . The knee extension increases the lower limb.
Flexion is the movement of body that decreases the angle between two body parts. The elbow flexion decreases the angle between humerus and ulna. The knee flexion causes the decrease an angle between tibia and femur.
Where is the origin of the rectus femoris?
Rectus femoris can be define as a bulk of muscle that is located in the anterior and superior compartment of the thigh. These muscles originates from the anterior illiac spine and from the parts of the alar illium that is superior to the acetabulum that is the part of the hip bone.
The fast axoplasmic transport includes proteins from the __________ and transported on ___________. The slow axoplasmic transport includes proteins from the ____________. a. RER, microtubules, cytoplasm
b. microtubules, cytoplasm, RER
c. cytoplasm, RER, microtubules
d. cytoplasm, RER, microtubules
a. RER, microtubules, cytoplasm
The axoplasmic transport or axonal transport that moves the material at the rate of 1-5 mm/day is called slow axoplasmic transport. This system serves to deliver the materials required for regeneration of axons and axoplasm. It includes the movement of proteins from cytoplasm along the axon.
On the other hand, the fast axoplasmic transport moves the material at the rate of 200-400 mm/day. It serves to transport integral membrane proteins and secretory proteins formed on RER. The fast movement occurs with the help of motor proteins that move the material along the surface of microtubules present in the cytoskeleton of neurons.
Protein synthesis occurs in the
a. cell body
d. axon terminal
A. Cell body
The cell body of a neuron is also called soma and have a nucleus and cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of the cell body contains organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Nissl bodies are the structures present in the cytoplasm of the cell body. The Nissl bodies consist of ribosomes and RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum). Since the cell body has RER and ribosomes, it serves as a site for protein synthesis in neurons.
What kind of channels are located in the input region? a. Voltage gated channels opened by neurotransmitter molecules
b. ligand gated channels opened by neurotransmitter molecules
c. voltage gated channels opened by a change in charge across the membrane
d. ligand gated channels opened by a change in charge across the membrane
The correct answer is option B ( ligand gated channels opened by neurotransmitter molecules).
Input region or postsynaptic region or dendrite is the site of neuron cell which receives the impulse from the pre-synaptic neuron at the synaptic junction.
The cell membrane of the dendrite is embedded with ligand-gated channels which opens up in response to the ligand (neurotransmitters) produced by the neurotransmitter vesicle of axon or output region of neuron.
The neuromuscular junction is such a case where acetylcholine receptors present in the dendrite opens in the presence of acetylcholine.
Thus, option B ( ligand-gated channels opened by neurotransmitter molecules) is the correct option.
Which of the following components of the sarcomere is an ATPase? a. actin
e. alpha actinin
The ATP binding site at myosin also have ATPase activity and can carry out hydrolysis of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate. The energy released during the ATP hydrolysis by ATPase activity of myosin is required to change the position of myosin head into the docked position to allow further movement.
Binding Ca2+ to the troponin complex causes ____________ to move a. troponin
c. the myosin binding site
The calcium binding to troponin and induces the muscle contraction. The active binding site gets exposed due to the calcium binding.
The calcium ions then attaches with troponin molecule. This changes the shape of troponin and removes the tropomyosin protein from the binding site. No ATP is available during this process.
Thus, the correct answer is option (d).
Binding Ca2+ to the troponin complex causes the tropomyosin to move.
Tropomyosin is a protein that helps muscle contraction.
A motor unit is a. one motor neuron
b. one motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers it innervates
c. several motor neurons and the group of muscle fibers it innervates
d. one motor neuron and only one muscle fiber
one motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers it innervates.
The concept of motor unit was given by Charles Scoot. A motor unit work together in a group and result in the coordination of a single muscle.
A motor unit is made upof a motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fibers that innervates the motor neuron. The motor unit consists of same muscle fibers.
Hence, the correct answer is option (b).
True or False: Smooth muscle is under control of the autonomic nervous system.
Autonomic nervous system is the division of peripheral nervous system. Autonomic nervous system control the involuntary actions of body like digestion, respiration, urination and heart rate.
Autonomic nervous system supplies the glands and smooth muscle and regulates the function of the internal organs. Hence, the smooth muscle is controlled by autonomic nervous system.
Thus, the given statement is true.
List the 5 basic elements of a reflex arc.
Five basic element of reflex arc are receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, effector and motor neuron.
Reflex arc may be defined as the neural pathway of reflex action. Reflex may be defined as a response against a particular stimulus that returns the body to homeostasis.
Five basic elements of reflex arc are as follows:
Receptor: Receptor is present at the end of a sensory neuron and they respond against a stimuli.
Sensory neuron: The neuron carries nerve impulse from the receptor to the brain or spinal cord.
Integration center: This center consists of more than one synapse in brain or spinal cord.
Motor neuron: This neuron conducts nerve impulse from the central nervous system to the effector organ.
Effector: Effector respond against a nerve impulse and may contract or secrete a product depending upon the effect.
What does the interneuron do between the afferent and efferent neurons?
Interneurons enable the communication between afferent and efferent neurons.
Internerons are also known as relay neuron. These neurons are classified into local neuron and relay neuron. Interneurons are involved in the process of reflex action and neurogenesis.
Interneurons are known to create neural circuits between the afferent and efferent neuron. This circuit helps in communication and transfer the information between afferent and efferent neurons.
How does the myelin sheath help the neuron?
Myelin sheath increases the speed of electrical impulse along the nerve cells.
Myelin sheath is an insulting layer of proteins and fatty acids that are present around the nerves of brain and spinal cord.
Myelin sheath increases the speed of conduction of nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another cell. Myelin sheath is formed by the concentric wrapping of schwann cells around the axon. This sheath decreases axonal membrane capacitance and increases the conduction of nerve impulse.
Describe the parts of a neuron including the cell body, dendrites, axons, and terminals.
A neuron has a cell body, an axon and dendrites. Apart from these structures, the white myelin sheath covers the axons. The gaps where myelin sheath is absent are called nodes of Ranvier. Axon terminals are the extreme ends of the axon from where nerve impulse is carried to the dendrites of the post synaptic neuron.
A neuron has a cell body, an axon, and dendrites.
Cell body: It is the metabolic center of the neuron and does not take part in the conduction of nerve impulse.
Axon and dendrites: These are the extensions arising from the cell body. Dendrites are smaller and more in number while axon is a single large extension.
The function of the axon is to carry the nerve impulse from the cell body to the axon terminals. Dendrites receive the nerve impulse from the axon terminal and pass it to the cell body. The ends of axons are called axon terminals. They synapse with dendrites of postsynaptic neurons.
The myelin sheath is the fatty layer present on long axons and serves to accelerate the rate of conduction of nerve impulse. The nodes of Ranvier are the gaps where the myelin sheath is not present.
Function. Three muscles insert on the calcaneus: the gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris. These muscles are part of the posterior compartment of the leg and aid in walking, running and jumping.Which muscle has its insertion on the posterior calcaneus? ›
The tendons of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles form the Achilles tendon, which inserts on the posterior tubercle of the calcaneus. The gastrocnemius muscle acts primarily as a plantar flexor but also provides some passive support to the posterior joint capsule.Which muscles inserts at the heel by the calcaneal tendon? ›
- Plantaris muscle.
- Gastrocnemius muscle.
- Soleus muscle.
Anatomically, the insertion is a confluence of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles that fuse to form a myotendinous unit on the posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneus. This review aims to reveal the insertional footprint as individual fascicular components attaching to facets of calcaneal tuberosity.Which muscle inserts at the calcaneus via the calcaneal tendon and is a weak knee flexor? ›
The soleus muscle runs along the gastrocnemius muscle and together they insert onto the posterior surface of the calcaneus via the calcaneal tendon.Which two muscles attach into the calcaneus? ›
The calcaneus is the largest bone in the foot. It projects posterior to the tibia and fibula and acts as a short lever for the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) which insert onto its posterior surface via the Achilles tendon.What is the origin and insertion of calcaneal tendon? ›
Achilles tendon, also called calcaneal tendon, strong tendon at the back of the heel that connects the calf muscles to the heel. The tendon is formed from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles (the calf muscles) and is inserted into the heel bone.What posterior muscle attaches to the heel? ›
The Achilles tendon starts in the middle of your calf and extends down to your heel. It connects your calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles) in the back of your lower leg to the heel bone in your foot.What is the posterior process of the calcaneus? ›
The posterior part of the calcaneus is circular, with three facets (superior, middle and inferior). The superior facet is separated from the calcaneal tendon by the retrocalcaneal bursa. The middle facet provides the attachment site for the calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon).What muscle attaches to the posterior fibula tibia and calcaneus? ›
The tibialis posterior muscle (TPM) is the deepest muscle of the deep posterior compartment of the lower leg. Its long muscle belly arises from the posterior aspect of the interosseous membrane and superior two-thirds of the posterior and medial surface of the fibula, and the superior aspect of the proximal tibia.
Insertional Achilles tendinitis involves the lower portion of the tendon, where it attaches (inserts) to the heel bone (also known as the calcaneus). In both noninsertional and insertional Achilles tendinitis, damaged tendon fibers may calcify (harden) over time.